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MOF&G Cover Winter 1997
 

 


  You are here:  PublicationsMaine Organic Farmer & GardenerWinter 1997-1998News - Winter 1997-1998   
 News & Events – Winter 1997-1998 Minimize


Herb Resource Book and Conference
Maine’s Plastic Collection: Year Two
Dairy Products and rBGH Labeling: A Victory
New UMass Professor Unearths Shared Roots of Gardening and Science
Meat Industry Opposes Consumers’ Right to Know
Steaming Out Salmonella
Experts Recommend Limited Meat and No Alcohol Intake
Sprout Those Broccoli Seeds
Dioxin in Chickens and Eggs
Dioxin Affects Chicken Brain, Behavior
Report a Deformed Frog
Pesticides Responsible for Disappearance of Birds in Great Britain
Production of Two Toxic Pesticides Ceased
USDA Neglects Organic Farming Research
Sales of Organic Foods Expected to Leap
Swissair Serving Organic Food
Sen. Leahy Wins Organic Leadership Award


Herb Resource Book and Conference

The ultimate herb resource guide, The Herbal Green Pages, has just released its 1997-98 edition. This updated 8th annual edition contains over 6,000 herb related businesses, both retail and wholesale. Also included are alphabetically listed sections on herb publications, herb associations, educational programs and suppliers of products of interest to herb businesses, all cross indexed by state/country, ownerís name and wholesale product categories (essential oils, fresh cut herbs, aromatherapy products, etc). With more than 350 pages, this spiral bound annual directory is continuously updated and includes companies in the United States, Canada and several foreign countries.

The Herbal Green Pages is part of the membership package ($60/yr) in The Herb Growing and Marketing Network or can be purchased separately for $25 + $2 shipping. Prices for orders outside North America are higher. The HGMN is the countryís largest herb trade association with around 2,000 members. It offers a resource service that provides information on specific herbal questions to its members and publishes a bimonthly trade journal, The Herbal Connection, and the annual Herbal Green Pages. Memberships and/or the Green Pages can be ordered from: The Herbal Connection, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575; 717-393-3295; fax: 717-393-9261; email:herbworld@aol.com. And check out their website at www.herbnet.com.

The 3rd Annual Herb Business Winter Getaway Conference is also sponsored by the Network. It takes place this year at the Omni Hotel in San Antonio, Texas, January 28 to February 1, 1998, and focuses on the fast growing area of medicinal herbs. Sessions include “The Realities of Wildcrafting,” “Chinese Herbal Medicine for Retailers,” “Formulating Aromatherapy Products,” “Selling Medicinal Roots,” commercial production of both culinary and medicinal herbs; general business topics; and more.

This year’s conference will again have a special day for beginners to hear from experts who have been in the industry for a number of years. A general interest program on medicinal herbs will begin the schedule of events on January 28 and cover male health, aromatherapy, growing a healing garden and creating an herbal medicine chest. An opening reception kicks off the conference on January 29 with the wholesale trade show and retail herbal bazaar offering products and services to growers, retailers and practitioners. An herbal bookstore and tours of herb businesses in the San Antonio area add to the fun.

The cost for the conference (exclusive of Beginners’ Day and Herbs for Health Day) is $160 for THGMN members and $210 for non-members. Prices increase after 12/31/97. Contact the Network at the address above for more information.

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Maine’s Plastic Collection: Year Two

For the second year, Maine citizens recycled their old plastic flower pots, trays and cell packs. This year, the system was streamlined. Last year, growers brought their collection to Augusta on a single, end-of-season day, amassing an almost overwhelming quantity. For efficiency, three collection days were scheduled this year: one in July at O’Donal’s Nurseries in Gorham (southern Maine); on in August at Plants Unlimited in Rockport (midcoast Maine); and one in September at Sunset Flowerland & Greenhouses, Fairfield (western Maine).

Each pile was sorted and packed into used watermelon cartons, secured by plastic wrap, and trucked to a plant in South Gardiner. There, the plastic is melted, a little black dye is added so that the color is uniform, and the cooling liquid is shaped into pellets. These are shipped to manufacturers in the United States and elsewhere, to be recycled into new plastic products.

Coordinated by Extension Landscape Horticulturist Dr. Lois Berg Stack of the University of Maine, this is a successful pioneer project. Piles of old pots behind greenhouse are becoming obsolete, and local landfills and transfer stations are dealing with much less plastic.

From O’Donal’s and Plants Unlimited, 14 pallets of tightly-packed, worn pots were trucked to the processor. According to Stack, Sunset Flowerland & Greenhouses’ accumulation was at least as much as that of the first two garden centers put together.

“This has turned out really well!” she commented. For participating growers, each business offered an event, such as free hot dogs at Plants Unlimited, talks for pesticide license credit at Sunset Greenhouses.

For 1996, New England Grows, which sponsors a winter trade show with talks, awarded a grant to Stack, making the project possible. For 1997, a second grant, specifically in support of this recycling, was accorded. “The New England grows program really does give back to the industry,” says Stack.

As far as we know, the plastics recycling project is the first of its kind, on such a scale, in the eastern United States. More than 200 members of the Green Industry have participated.

What next? “The recycling is a three-year pilot project,” says Stack. “So far, it’s been beyond our expectations.” Now Stack is researching ways to recycle greenhouse plastic.

–  Carol Howe, Rockland, Maine

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Dairy Products and rBGH Labeling: A Victory

A settlement announced in August between the state of Illinois and a coalition of organic food companies allows manufacturers to say on their labels that they don’t use milk from cows treated with recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH). Illinois is one of four states, along with Hawaii, Nevada and Oklahoma, that had forbidden these labels in the past. The 1994 decision in Illinois “to do so basically stopped anti-BGH labeling across the country because it is not feasible for companies such as Ben and Jerry’s to label their products differently for individual markets,” according to The Washington Post (Aug. 15, 1997). Ben and Jerry’s had sued Illinois last year, charging that the state’s ban on the labels violated the company’s right to inform their customers of the contents of their products.

Source: Alternative Agriculture News, Sept. 1997

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New UMass Professor Unearths Shared Roots of Gardening and Science

AMHERST, Mass. – If pharmaceutical companies had existed 400 years ago, they would have been botanical gardens, says new University of Massa­chusetts history professor Brian Ogilvie.

Ogilvie, a specialist in the history of science, says the first botanists were actually Renaissance physicians who were exploring the medicinal benefits of plants.

“They were re-examining the wisdom of the ancients who had catalogued a variety of flora with alleged healing properties,” Ogilvie says. “In doing so, they not only went out into the natural landscape on excursions, they also created Europe’s first botanical gardens.”

These gardens, today the focus of many a tourist’s itinerary, are also the precursors of greenhouses throughout the world. Indeed, every time plant lovers visit Kew Gardens in London or the botanical gardens in New York, they are carrying on a tradition begun by these Renaissance physicians, says Ogilvie.

According to Ogilvie, interest in botany exploded in Europe between the 16th and 17th centuries, with numerous gardens being cultivated across the continent. Similarly, thousands of medical students in the region began studying the subject, and close to 200 textbooks were written where before few had existed. What Ogilvie finds so fascinating about these phenomena is how they seem to relate to broader trends in the period. As he says, not only gardening, but cartography, zoology and alchemy all experienced dramatic growth spurts during the era.

“The unifying thread seems to be a desire to create catalogues of nature,” Ogilvie says. “The Renaissance scientist wanted to impose some sense of order on the world, and in doing so he created an element of the modern scientific method.”

And yet, even as the Renaissance mind looked toward modern science, it also reveled in “curiosities, marvels, and wonders,” Ogilvie says. Ogilvie points to the classic example of an Italian nobleman who collected oddities from around the world – among his treasures were gilded ostrich eggs, nautilus shells and a stuffed crocodile, the entire collection being displayed by a court-appointed dwarf who became its stuffed centerpiece once dead.

“The Renaissance is a fascinating period in history, because in it thinkers were looking toward the classical past, but also creating the world of the future,” Ogilvie says. “It’s a kind of link between the ancient and the modern – a fascinating and enlightening link.”

Ogilvie came to this “fascinating and enlightening link” in a similarly “curious and marvelous” manner, having begun his undergraduate career as a physicist only to realize he was more interested in “people than particles.” Combining his love of science with his new-found love of history, he focused on the origins of botany only to discover the link between medicine and gardening.

Now, as an affiliate of the new Massachusetts Center for Renaissance Studies at the University, Ogilvie continues to explore these links. During the school year, he works with the center’s director Arthur Kinney to ensure the gardens being designed for the grounds are historically accurate. During the summer, he continues his research into these gardens’ origins, traveling throughout Europe in search of archaic medical texts. Wandering from botanical gardens to college libraries, much in the manner of the original botanists/physicians who wrote these texts, he straddles the ancient and the modern and so satisfies his twin cravings for history and science.

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Meat Industry Opposes Consumers’ Right to Know

The U.S. Department of Agriculture doesn’t alert consumers when contaminated food has been shipped to fast food franchises, school cafeterias and other institutions, and the meat and restaurant industries want to keep it that way. More than a million pounds of tainted meat have been recalled without public notice in the past three years and 20 million in seven years without public notice, according to USDA records – even when some of that meat had been eaten by consumers.

Consumer groups told the USDA on Sept. 24 that the public had a right to know about contamination so that people could decide what and where to eat, and to help them identify pathogens they may have consumed if they became ill during a food recall. Industry groups countered that public notification was purposeless, since in these situations food is being prepared by professionals and consumers have no control over its preparation. It supported public notification only when contaminated food reaches grocery stores and consumers are responsible for disposing of it. Jim Hodges of the American Meat Institute also told the USDA that sending public notices for every food recall could dull public attention to food safety so that it did not respond when a threat requires consumer action.

Source: Portland Press Herald, Sept. 25, 1997

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Steaming Out Salmonella

Who needs irradiation? At the Agricultural Research Service Eastern Regional Research Station in Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, chemical engineer Arthur I. Morgan and his colleagues have designed, built, tested and patented a device that kills bacteria on the surface of raw meat. Without cooking the meat – and in just 25 milliseconds – the device kills 99.99% of bacteria by heating the meat surface quickly with steam heated to 290 degrees F. and cooling it in a vacuum, all without cooking the surface. “A commercial version of one of our machines could treat 4,000 birds an hour,” says Morgan, adding that it can be used to treat beef and pork as well. “This equipment could be added at the slaughterhouse without increasing costs more than a cent per pound.”

Source: Agricultural Research, October 1997

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Experts Recommend Limited Meat and No Alcohol Intake

The nonprofit American Institute for Cancer Research has issued a 600-page report, based on international researchers’ review of scientific literature, saying that people should eat less meat and consume no alcohol if they want to minimize their risks of cancer from foods. The panel was headed by Dr. John D. Potter of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. “If eaten at all,” the report states, “limit intake of red meat to less than 3 ounces daily. It is preferable to choose fish, poultry and meat from nondomesticated animals in place of red meat.” It recommends that fats and oils provide 15 to 30% of total energy, although one dissenter, Dr. Walter Willett of Harvard, said that the panel of scientists did not find probable or convincing evidence that dietary fat leads to cancer.

Regarding alcohol, the report said that it “is not recommended. If consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to less than two drinks a day for men and one for women.”

The report made no recommendations regarding dairy products, since insufficient evidence was found linking them to cancer. It did recommend eating five servings a day (15 to 30 ounces) of fruits and vegetables; consuming seven servings (20 to 30 ounces) of grains and legumes; limiting salt intake to 6 grams per day; not smoking; maintaining ideal weight; and exercising.

Source: The New York Times, Oct. 1, 1997

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Sprout Those Broccoli Seeds

Broccoli sprouts were shown this summer to contain large amounts of the compound sulforaphane, which inhibits the development of cancer by activating detoxifying enzymes. A 1994 study, for example, showed that cancer development was reduced by 60 to 80% in lab animals that were fed sulforaphane extracted from broccoli. Other studies have shown that eating broccoli can provide enough sulforaphane to lower colon cancer risk by half.

The problem, researchers thought, would be getting consumers to eat enough broccoli – two pounds a week – to get an effective amount of sulforaphane. So Paul Talalay and his coworkers at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions tested broccoli at different life stages to find out when and how sulforaphane forms. They were surprised to find that the seeds were extraordinarily high in enzyme activity, as were three-day-old sprouts, which taste better than seeds. “The sprouts aren’t bitter and don’t taste like broccoli,” Talalay told Science News, although they do have “a little zing.”

Source: Science News, 9/20/97; Bangor Daily News, 9/17/97

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Dioxin in Chickens and Eggs

The federal government has found evidence of dioxin contamination in chickens, eggs and farm-raised catfish, and has banned the shipment of chickens and eggs from as many as 350 producers, most in Arkansas and Texas but some as far as North Carolina, Indiana and California. The source of the dioxin is reported to be a contaminated soybean-based feed produced by two companies, Riceland Foods, Inc., and Quincy Soybean Co., both in Arkansas. These two companies send feed to 350 customers.

The dioxin reportedly appeared when bentonite clay (sometimes called “ball clay”) was added to the feed to prevent clumping and improve flow. Bentonite is familiar to most people as the main ingredient in kitty litter. The dioxin-contaminated bentonite has been traced to an open-pit bentonite mine near Sledge, Mississippi, operated by the Kentucky-Tennessee Ball Clay Company. The source of the dioxin in the ball clay is unknown. Bentonite deposits are a favorite place to bury hazardous wastes because the wastes tend to stick to the clay and move only slowly thereafter. There is no evidence that hazardous waste was buried in the Sledge mine.

Because of the contamination, half of the eggs produced in Arkansas during the week of July 15 failed the FDA test requiring that eggs contain less than 1 part per trillion dioxin. An EPA report in the early ’90s said that 95% of human exposure to dioxins occurs chiefly through eating red meat, fish and dairy products. The FDA said that consumers face no immediate health hazard from eating chickens, eggs or catfish even if they are contaminated at 3 or 4 parts per trillion. However, 5 ounces of chicken meat contaminated with 3 ppt dioxin would contain a total dioxin load of 420 picograms, about 600 times what the EPA might consider an adult’s acceptable daily intake of 0.7 picograms per day.

The 1 ppt “level of concern” put on chickens and eggs by the FDA in this case might create serious problems for the food industry. A 1994 study of foods purchased in an upstate New York supermarket, for instance, found 1.5 ppt dioxin in ground beef. In 1992, EPA analyzed 60 fish samples from 34 fresh and estuarine sites where no industrial dioxin sources were obvious. The average concentration of dioxin in the edible portions of the fish (the fillets) was 1.2 parts per trillion. Thus there is evidence that neither ground beef nor fish might be considered fit for human consumption in the United States if they are judged by the 1 ppt “level of concern” recently adopted by the FDA for chickens and eggs.

Source: Rachel’s Environment & Health Weekly, July 17, 1997; P.O. Box 5036, Annapolis, MD 21403-7036; e-mail: erf@rachel.clark.net

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Dioxin Affects Chicken Brain, Behavior

When neurobiologist Diane S. Henshel injected chicken eggs with the dioxin TCDD at 10 to 1,000 picograms per gram of egg, the resulting chickens had slightly larger left brains than right. Also, the tectum – the relay station for auditory and visual signals in the brain – and the forebrain – where motor function and integrated thinking occur – were affected. Preliminary data link these asymmetries to subtle behavioral changes, which seems “consistent with reports of cognitive problems in children who were exposed in the womb to dioxinlike compounds,” reports Janet Raloff.

Source: “Dioxin’s fowl deed: Misshapen brains,” Science News, Aug. 30, 1997.

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Report a Deformed Frog

Two years ago, during a field trip to a farm in southern Minnesota, middle school children noticed that about half of the frogs in a pond had unusual numbers of legs or deformed limbs. Since then, areas with high rates of limb and eye malformations in frogs, toads and salamanders have been found in various parts of the country. Also, water taken from the Minnesota pond has caused deformities in frogs that were subsequently raised in it, and residents living near that pond have been told to drink bottled water.

While no one knows, yet, the cause of the deformities, the U.S. Geological Survey has begun a North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations (NARCAM). Anyone who finds a deformed amphibian is asked to report it to NARCAM either at www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/herps/malform/center.htm or at 1-800-238-9801. NARCAM asks people to leave the amphibians where they find them.

Source: “Seen any deformed frogs?” by Janet Raloff, Science News, July 12, 1997

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Pesticides Responsible for Disappearance of Birds in Great Britain

Great Britain’s birds are disappearing, and “the main culprits posing the threat to birds are pesticides, not by killing them directly but by removing the food sources from the fields and hedges on which our birdlife depends,” according to an article in Living Earth (July, 1997), published by the Soil Association of England. “The threat that pesticides pose to farmland wildlife is highlighted graphically by the shocking decline in numbers over the last 25 years of once extremely common birds such as the blackbird, starling, lapwing and tree sparrow,” the article says, summarizing the research done by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Pesticide use in Great Britain has been steadily rising since the 1970s: “Cereal crops are now sprayed with six times as much fungicide as in the ’70s and twice as much herbicide.” The Society is pressing for major support for organic farming to combat the birds’ decline, the magazine reports. “In a whole farm system, where there is a range of habitats, where no sprays are used … and where conservation principles are woven into commercial production, the opportunities for wildlife are bound to be greatly enhanced,” it concludes.

Source: Alternative Agriculture News, Sept., 1997.

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Production of Two Toxic Pesticides Ceased

Velsicol Chemical Corporation said it will cease production of the insecticides chlordane and heptachlor, which were banned by the EPA 20 years ago but were still manufactured, exported, and returned to the United States on produce. These were two of the pesticides addressed by Greenpeace’s “Circle of Poison” campaign.

Source: Greenpeace Magazine, Fall 1997.

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USDA Neglects Organic Farming Research

Searching for the “O-Word”, a study released recently by the Organic Farming Research Foundation (OFRF), shows that the U.S. Department of Agriculture devotes less than one-tenth of one percent of its research budget to organic farming systems. The study found only 34 research projects that specifically studied organic farming, out of 30,000 projects in USDA’s Current Research Information System (CRIS) database.

“Organic farming can contribute significantly to the nation’s food security, environmental and economic goals, but this potential is not being recognized,” according to Mark Lipson, author of the study and a working organic vegetable grower. “USDA has been unwilling, or unable to pursue the type of research and development that could increase the efficiency and wider adoption of organic methods.”

“0rganic growers have had to rely on their own trial and error, with little or no support from public research institutions,” Lipson says. “These farmers successfully produce every crop with competitive yields, yet there are many specific problems that growers face which require research conducted in an organic setting. We know organic farming works; with research support it can work even better.” According to the study, USDA spending on research devoted to organics amounts to no more that $1.5 million annually, out of a total budget of $1.8 billion for agricultural research and education.

The lack of research support stands in stark contrast to the economic growth of the organic industry. “Organic foods are a $3.5 billion marketplace in this country alone, with an annual growth rate of 20% over the last seven years,” states Katherine DiMatteo, Executive Director of the Organic Trade Association in Greenfield, Mass. “It is very disappointing that there is so little research and development for organic production.”

Over two years, OFRF analyzed USDA’s research database to determine the “organic content” of the federal agricultural research portfolio, as a part of its National Organic Research Policy Analysis project (NORPA). While a handful of organic research projects were identified, they were “few and far between. “There are some token projects,” says Lipson, “but there is no deliberate commitment to pursue organic farming as a strategic objective.”

The failure to invest in organic research is due in part, Lipson believes, to long-standing ideological hostility toward organics within USDA and univer­sity research institutions. To break the taboo against the “O-word,” the study recommends that USDA make a formal policy statement acknowledging the value of organic farming research.

The study further recommends incorporating organic farming information into all of USDA’s research and education programs. “Organic farming research should not be isolated in an obscure office or hidden within a single program,” says OFRF’s Executive Director Bob Scowcroft. “Organic farming is a legitimate focus for every research, education and marketing division within USDA.”

Specific recommendations are:

1. USDA should issue a basic policy statement recognizing that organic farming can play a significant role in meeting the nation’s agricultural, environmental and economic development needs.

2. Collection and dissemination of information about organic agriculture should be a routine and expected task for all relevant USDA agencies.

3. Current efforts to improve the CRIS-system should incorporate a definition of organic-pertinence and integrate it into the reporting system.

4. Implementation of USDA national initiatives (e.g., Fund for Rural America, National Research Initiative, Integrated Pest Management, Food Safety, etc.) should support and utilize organic farming research and education.

5. Specific research and development support should be allocated for implementation of the National Organic Program.

6. USDA should undertake a national initiative for organic farming research, including:

• Assessment by all USDA research and education agencies of the potential contributions of organic farming to their Mission and Goals.

• Facilitating the development of scientific goals for organic farming research, bringing together producers and scientists to construct a long-term scientific agenda.

• Funding for multidisciplinary investigations emphasizing on-farm organnic systems analysis, combining research and extension.

• Establishing a national network of dedicated organic experiment stations, guided by local organic farmers.

OFRF took on the study because it had repeatedly identified the lack of formal research and education as a significant barrier to farmers who want to start growing organically. “The government is too slow to wait for but too big to ignore,” Scowcroft states. “It’s time the progressive interests in agriculture join with environmental and consumer activists to demand that USDA take organic research seriously. American farmers need research on alternative systems, and the American people want this to be a higher priority for the expenditure of their tax dollars.”

The USDA needs no new authority from Congress to pursue organic farming research, Lipson points out. “The USDA can direct more resources to studying organic farming right now, under many different programs ” The Senate Agriculture Committee recently acknowledged this in its report accompanying its markup of SB1150, which would renew funding authority for USDA’s research and education programs.

The full 84-page document Searching for the “O-Word” is available from OFRF, PO Box 440, Santa Cruz, CA 95061. A $15 donation to the foundation is requested. The study was supported by grants from the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation and the Jessie Smith Noyes Foundation.

The Organic Farming Research Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit foundation that was formed to sponsor research related to organic farming, to disseminate research results to organic farmers and growers interested in adopting organic production systems, and to educate the public and decision-makers about organic farming issues. Since 1990, OFRF has awarded over $400,000 in competitive and donor-directed grants in support of 69 research and education projects. Anyone in North America may apply to OFRF for funds. Our deadlines for submitting grant applications are January 15 and July 15 each year. Guidelines and a complete list of all OFRF funded projects are available from the OFRF office.

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Sales of Organic Foods Expected to Leap

Long-anticipated federal organic standards will be “good news for consumers who want more options for healthful dining, and the standards to back them up,” according to The Wall Street Journal (Aug. 18, 1997). “Consistency of standards will lead to less misuse of the term ‘organic,’ and better information for consumers,” according to the article. “Public appetite is expected to push annual organic sales, now at $2.5 billion, to $10 billion within five years, according to the USDA … The look of organic produce has changed … Organic growers can offer better variety and quality because of the industry’s overall growth, and because of higher demand in the processed food market.” After the proposed standards are published in the Federal Register (expected before Christmas), the National Organic Standards Board will meet to compare the standards to the Board’s recommendations to the USDA, and respond collectively to them, according to Kathleen Merrigan, Senior Analyst for the Wallace Institute and a member of the National Organic Standards Board. Consumers can look at the guidelines and offer feedback by accessing www.usda.gov/ams.

Source: Alternative Agriculture News, Sept., 1997, The Henry Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture, 9200 Edmonston Rd., Suite 117, Greenbelt, MD 20770-1551.

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Swissair Serving Organic Food

Swissair is now serving organically grown products in all classes of its in-flight food service on its flights departing from Switzerland. “The trend towards healthier foods is increasing all over the globe,” according to the airline. “Swissair sees this as a chance to contribute to the health and well-being of its passengers.” In a recent survey of Swissair’s frequent flyers, respondents said that “organically grown products should be used as much as possible.” Within three years, the airline’s “Naturalgourmet” organic food service is expected to be expanded to cover Swissair’s entire route network, according to the airline, which is working with BioSuisse, the association of Swiss organic farmers, and the Swiss Consumer Protection Association on the project.

Source: Alternative Agriculture News, Sept., 1997

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Sen. Leahy Wins Organic Leadership Award

Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT), a member of the Wallace Institute’s President’s Council, is the first recipient of the Organic Trade Association’s Organic Leadership Award, presented in September. The new award acknowledges “leadership and vision in the furtherance of organic agriculture” and is being given to Sen. Leahy for his “leadership in sponsoring the Organic Foods Production Act and his long-standing support of organic agriculture,” according to the association. “During his 23-year tenure on the Senate Agriculture Committee, Leahy has been a steadfast supporter of organic agriculture and farmers.”

Source: Alternative Agriculture News, Sept. 1997

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