"The history of every Nation is eventually written in the way in which it cares for its soil."
- Franklin D Roosevelt. Signing the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act.
MOFGA members receive our quarterly newspaper The Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener as a benefit of membership. Become a member today! It can also be purchased at news stands.
|| Growing Highbush Blueberries
|A section of Rivard's Farm shows well pruned and mulched highbush blueberries. Photo courtesy of David Handley.
From talks by David Handley of Maine Cooperative Extension Service and Jerry Rivard, who cultivates 2,000 blueberry plants in Springvale, Maine, at MOFGA and Cooperative Extension’s 2006 Farmer to Farmer Conference in Bar Harbor.
These native fruits have been here for tens of thousands of years but were largely ignored by the first Europeans in America, although Native Americans used some--mostly for pemmican, which included mashed blueberries and animal fat. In the 1900s, Dr. Coville of the USDA, working with New Jersey resident Elizabeth White, made selections from the wild and crosses that formed the basis of varieties available today. Breeding programs now exist around the world and have expanded the range of commercial growing regions and popularity of this fruit greatly.
Like rhododendrons, these Ericaceous family members prefer to grow in areas with very acidic soils with a good layer of peat-like organic matter over very well drained soil. In swampy areas, they’re on hummocks, so roots aren’t submerged.
Blueberries roots don’t penetrate clay soils well. They have a very fibrous root system and survive without root hairs by associating with a mycorrhizal fungus that helps extract nutrients from soils.
The plants have woody canes and fruit on one-year-old shoots. Shoots of the current year’s growth develop buds that will produce fruit next summer. Older shoots harden and won’t produce fruit again unless pruned.
Blueberries also have value as landscape plants. Some catalogs rate varieties for their yellow-orange to deep red fall color.
Some commercial plantings in Maine have existed for over 50 years. “If you do a good job of planting and pruning, they will be around a lot longer than you are,” said Handley.
Plants need a well-drained, preferably sandy soil and won’t do well with a hardpan that holds a lot of water in spring.
While normally an understory crop, shade strongly limits production, produces uneven plant growth, and fruits will be small and will ripen unevenly.
Wind can cause winter injury, so plant a windbreak. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (nrcs.usda.org) can provide guidelines and may offer incentive programs for planting windbreaks.
A gentle slope with good elevation will help drain water and air, protecting plants from bud-damaging spring frosts. Since frost tends to settle in low areas and winds are worst on hilltops, Handley recommended planting on the slopes. A nearby water source helps.
Eliminate perennial weeds with cover crops, crop rotation or fallow periods, ideally for a couple of years before planting. Blueberries have good potential as an organic crop, because few pests bother them, and they do well on many Maine soils, but perennial weeds must be controlled.
If the soil pH is 6.0 or above, add sulfur to attain a pH of 4.8 to 5.2 (see Table 1) – but not much lower. Adding sulfur year after year, said Handley, can create a pH of 4.0 or 4.2 – too acidic to supply some nutrients to blueberries.
Maintain organic matter at 2% to 4% or even higher, and don’t add unneeded nutrients. Adding chicken manure annually, for example, can oversupply phosphorus. Watch the Mg-Ca-K balance; excess soil K (e.g., from dairy manure) reduces Mg availability, and Mg is very important in blueberries. This common deficiency in blueberries can be countered by adding Epsom salts to the soil.
Table 1 – Pounds of ground sulfur/A to lower pH to 4.5
Soil pH takes about a year after S additions to change; and sandy soils change faster than clay soils. If planting in a clay soil (which is not recommended), more S is required to lower the pH, and a lot of organic matter is needed to open the tight structure that otherwise hinders blueberry root growth.
Sulfur is usually added as prills or as ground sulfur, with more finely ground S reacting faster. Prills tend to react slower but their application doesn’t create a cloud of dust. The price is about equal.
Handley rarely recommends aluminum sulfate. It reacts fast but adds a lot of aluminum to the soil. “At certain pH levels, Al can become toxic,” Handley explained.
Select very hardy types that will mature on your land. Most varieties were bred in the mid-Atlantic and upper Midwest and don’t do well here. Handley focused on varieties that produce well from Augusta, south. “If you live north of Augusta, all bets are off,” he said, although a grower in Caribou has had luck with low-stature plants in a spot that gets a lot of snow. Most varieties are guaranteed to USDA plant hardiness zones 5 or 6; most of Maine is in zone 4. (The lower the number, the colder the winter.)
Handley suggested that only growers south of Portland try such varieties as ‘Bluetta’ and ‘Earlyblue.’ which break buds early; frost tends to kill these buds farther north. Early varieties also tend to lack fruit quality.
Some very late varieties, such as ‘Lateblue,’ ‘Coville’ and ‘Elliot,’ have good fruit but it doesn’t mature until the first week of September, limiting production where frost comes by September 10 or 15. “‘Eliot’ is on my recommended list for southern Maine but not for northern Maine,” said Handley.
Michigan State describes blueberry varieties at http://web1.msue.msu.edu/fruit/bbvarbul.htm – but Handley noted that Michigan is a little warmer than here because of the lake effect.
Handley discussed the following varieties, in order of ripening:
‘Patriot’ – one of the earliest to mature; developed in Maine; very large, quality fruits with good flavor; hardy; does not produce new canes vigorously, so yield can be shy, but with good soil fertility and lighter pruning than normal, it will be productive; susceptible to mummy berry and witch’s broom.
‘Northland’ – cross between highbush and lowbush species; 4 to 5 feet or taller in fertile soils; unlike ‘Patriot,’ a spreading bush, with many rhizomes sending up many shoots and forming a thick hedge if poorly pruned; early- to midseason; a good pollinator for some other varieties; relatively small fruit size is an issue in some states, but many Mainers are used to and some even seek wild-type, smaller berries for jams and pies; doesn’t have a great bloom (the waxy coating that gives blueberries a desirable, light blue appearance).
‘Blueray’ and ‘Bluecrop’ – very nice, older USDA varieties. ‘Blueray’ is mid-early, ‘Bluecrop’ is midseason; both hardy and have large, nice looking fruit, with ‘Blueray’ fruits a little bigger. ‘Bluecrop’ has some mummyberry resistance; ‘Blueray’ is quite susceptible. Vase-like habit of ‘Blueray’ can challenge pickers when some branches are on the ground; also tends to break under heavy snow load.
‘Nelson’ – mid-late type, can round out the season in Maine; large, quality berries not as large as those of ‘Blueray’ but have nice bloom, good flavor and yield; very hardy; seems to get mummyberry in Handley’s trials.
‘Jersey’ – gave highbush blueberries a somewhat bad name; mildly sweet, but not as flavorful as wild type; late-midseason, medium-small fruit with good bloom; hardy but some years not so hardy as others; mummyberry resistant; adapted to wider range of soils than others; should do better than others on heavy or poorly drained soil.
Varieties to trial, especially in southern Maine:
‘Meador’ – midseason; hardy; medium-large, quality fruits; yields “so-so.”
‘Elizabeth’ – mid- to late-season; large, quality fruits; yields vary, especially with fluctuating spring temperatures.
‘Toro’ – mid-early; large, quality fruit; hardiness not well tested.
‘Elliot’ – trial for a late market, but a lot of berries will be lost in northern Maine; fruits medium sized, attractive; hardy; mummyberry resistant.
‘Blue Gold’ – mid-late; medium sized, good fruit; relatively hardy but hasn’t done well in Monmouth area.
‘Herbert’ – midseason; large, soft fruits unsuitable for mechanical picking or processing industry but good for hand picking; good hardiness and yield but suffers with wildly fluctuating spring temperatures.
These crosses between highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and lowbush (Vaccinium angustifolium), from a Minnesota breeding program, survive winter better than highbush because they’re covered with snow better; and they’re good for edible landscapes.
‘St. Cloud’ – promising in very cold areas; about 4 feet tall; spreading growth habit; berries good size, dark (without much bloom), very flavorful, productive; recommended for very cold sites but may not be the best in warmer areas.
‘Northblue’ (30 inches tall), ‘Friendship’ (24 inches), ‘North Country’ (24 inches) – good around the house, in rock gardens, to feed birds and yourself; nice fall color; pretty spring flowers; not recommend for commercial production.
Most Varieties Cross Pollinated
Some blueberry varieties require cross pollination, others don’t. To be safe, plant at least two varieties that flower at the same time, unless wild blueberries are nearby. Blueberries don’t appeal to honeybees, because the flowers have long corollas, and nectaries are deep in the flower, where honeybees’ tongues can’t reach. But bumblebees love them, as do small, solitary bees that crawl inside the flowers. If forced (if enough hives are set out), honeybees will work the flowers. Carpenter bees chew a hole in the side and get nectar without pollinating; then honeybees use the same entry hole.
Plant one- or two-year-old plants in early spring rather than fall. Rooted cuttings are less expensive but take two more years to produce. Three-, four-, five-year-old and 10-year-old plants are too expensive for large plantings.
Dig a large but not deep planting hole and spread the roots in it; most of the roots are in the top 6 to 8 inches of soil. Backfill with a 1:1 blend of soil and organic matter—preferably compost. Well-rotted sawdust also works, but fresh sawdust robs roots of nitrogen. Peat works but is expensive and must be moistened before use: Dry peat moss sucks moisture away from roots. Don’t put fertilizer (except compost) in the planting hole – not even fish fertilizer – because roots burn easily. Set plants at the same depth as at the nursery and water them thoroughly. At planting time, prune only broken branches or branches heading in the wrong direction; plants will take a year to catch up from heavier pruning.
Set plants 4 to 6 feet apart within rows, or 2 to 4 feet for smaller varieties, especially half-high plants. With some of the larger, spreading plants, such as ‘Bluecrop’ or ‘Blueray,’ 6 feet between plants will provide sufficient space for pruning and picking.
Leave 8 to 12 feet between rows to get equipment in without knocking fruit from plants.
These recommendations result in 650 to 800 plants per acre.
First Season Care
To establish a planting, don’t just rototill strips in a hayfield; the hay will come back readily and overtake the plants. Prepare the whole field, increase the fertility, get ahead of weeds, then plant.
Clean cultivate between rows and keep plants watered. Handley prefers a trickle system, although overhead is fine.
The first spring, rub flower clusters off to help plants get established.
Fertilize very lightly about a month after planting, when roots are somewhat established, with a 1-1-1 balanced fertilizer, such that each plant gets about 1/10 of an ounce of actual nitrogen fertilizer.
Mulch with 4 to 8 inches of wood chips or bark, but not sawdust.
Establish a ground cover between rows. A weak perennial, such as hard fescue or bluegrass, is good; avoid a contractor’s mix or pasture mix; these tend to have very aggressive grasses and aren’t monitored well for weed seeds. The hard fescue or bluegrass mix may take two to three years to get established and then needs to be mowed only a few times a year. Don’t sow legumes: Clovers will come in on their own and can even become weeds as they can grow through mulch. Clovers can also carry tomato ringspot and other viruses that can affect blueberries. “When I see clover in a planting, I don’t panic,” said Handley, “but I don’t try to encourage the stuff either.”
Nonorganic growers may use an acidifying fertilizer such as Muracid, and organic acidifying fertilizers are becoming available; but if the soil pH is between 4.8 to 5.2, any fertilizer that supplies sufficient N, P and K is fine. The form of fertilizer won’t affect soil pH much in the short term, but repeatedly using acid fertilizers may eventually make the soil too acidic.
Blueberries, unlike most plants, tend to take N up in the ammonium (NH4+) rather than nitrate (NO3-) form, so growers tend to use such N sources as ammonium sulfate. Regular additions of compost, fish meal or other N fertilizers are fine, as long as plants are growing sufficiently. Handley uses Electra, a “highly organic” 5-3-10 product; it is not OMRI-approved.
Young plants don’t need much fertilizer (see Table 2). With a 7-7-7 product, such as Muracid, apply about 2 ounces per plant and then increase that rate by about 2 ounces per year until the plant is six years old. Eventually apply about 12 ounces per plant—half at budbreak (when buds first swell in spring) and half six weeks later, when green fruits first appear. Increases in subsequent years may be necessary if, after six years, growth rate and height aren’t as expected. Organic fertilizers are usually slow-release, so split applications may not be necessary. “Blueberries are an ideal crop for front loading organic fertilizers ahead of planting,” Handley noted.
Apply fertilizer in a ring extending 15 inches from the base of the plant – or at least up one side of the row and down the other – to prevent uneven growth.
Table 2. N Application/Acre/Year
|Age of Plant
||Annual N/A/yr. (lbs.)
While organic growers can’t use ammonium sulfate or urea, the N rates in the table show that blueberries are not hungry plants. “They’re very good at mining the soil for what they need, and overfertilizing can cause winter injury and encourage weed growth,” said Handley. Plants should have about 10 inches of new, dark green growth by the time green fruits appear. A lot more growth means plants have too much N; less means too little.
Blueberries have a spring flush of growth, then the bud tip dies, then a secondary bud breaks and is followed by a second flush of growth, which produces most of the following year’s crop. The second fertilizer application (recommended to nonorganic growers) provides N for this second flush and helps set flower buds for the next year.
During years one to three, encourage roots by removing only broken branches and weak growth; and remove most flowers for the first two or three years. To encourage upright growth, remove branches that grow along the ground.
In years four and beyond, a mature bush should have six to 12 canes ranging from one to six years old coming up from the ground. Remove weak, fruiting shoots and anything in excess of 12 upright canes. No individual cane should be more than six years old, since older canes are big, tall and mostly vegetative with very small fruit. Canes about three to six years old are most productive and have the best fruit.
Prune in late winter, when plants are dormant, as soon as you can get into the planting – commonly in March, although the first of the year is fine if the snow is low enough. Fall pruning can break dormancy and increase winter injury. Even if dormancy isn’t broken, fall-pruned plants tend to flower earlier, subjecting more of the crop to frost.
With loppers, remove one to four of the oldest (tallest, thickest) canes that are over six years old. Cut them to the ground, unless the bush is producing few new shoots. In this case, “stump” the plant by cutting it about 8 inches high. Breaks from the stump will create new shoots. This practice is frowned upon farther south, because it promotes a crown rot; but that disease is not a problem in Maine. Stumping can work well with a variety like ‘Patriot,’ which doesn’t produce many new shoots; most varieties, however, produce lots of new shoots.
Then thin new canes, leaving one to four of the most vigorous; these will replace the old canes.
Next, in the canopy of the plant, use hand shears to remove shoots with weak growth (under 6 inches long and with few or no fruit buds). Remove winter injured shoots, which have chocolate-brown colored buds. Keep strong shoots that have a good balance of flower and vegetative buds. (Flower buds are teardrop-shaped; smaller, pointed buds are vegetative.) Remove 50 to 75% of the fruit load from the bush, since blueberries habitually over-fruit, which decreases fruit size and quality; delays maturity; and can set plants up for biennial bearing.
Renovating Neglected Bushes
Neglected bushes can be cut down with a chainsaw. Old, established plants with good root systems will send up new shoots, and three or four years later, the plant should set a good fruit load.
An alternative is to remove one-fourth to one-third of the oldest (biggest, thickest, tallest) canes with a saw every year for three or four years. At the end of the fourth year, some four-year-old canes will be producing.
Harvest may last from late July or mid-August until frost. Planting just a couple of varieties that ripen uniformly can concentrate the season; planting early, mid- and late-season varieties can extend the season.
Harvest when fruits have been completely blue for one to three days. Fruits with some green color will still be very tart. Harvest fruit for market when it’s cool and dry; fruit harvested in the heat of the day will deteriorate quickly. Cool fruit immediately in a refrigerator or in an air-conditioned shed. Blueberries should be stored at 32 degrees. They won’t freeze at this temperature because they have so much sugar in them. Put them in flats or containers. Fruits stay in much better shape in half-pint containers than in quarts.
Mechanical harvesters are available but cost $40,000 for a tractor-pulled unit and $150,000 for a stand-alone model. Most mechanically harvested fruits have a short shelf life and, thus, go to processors.
Pick-Your-Own may be the most popular marketing method in Maine, but customers are changing, from elders who, remembering the Depression, pick a lot of fruit for food security, to younger couples with kids who come for exercise, fresh air and entertainment and pick only a couple of quarts. The market is still pretty good, and blueberries command a good price.
Blueberries ripen when tomatoes and sweet corn are ready, so you may not have time to deal with the crop or PYO customers – who can require a lot of patience. The pre-picked market is growing, but labor for picking is a problem.
To sell retail, talk to potential buyers first. They may already deal with growers in Massachusetts or New Jersey. Make sure buyers know you and the quality of your product and service. Don’t miss deliveries.
The demand for more wholesale highbush blueberries is questionable, given the many big growers in New Jersey, Michigan, New York and Connecticut. Still, distributors may want local fruit.
To grow highbush blueberries organically, preplant weed control with cover crops or fallowing is critical. Within rows, 6 to 8 inches of wood chip or bark mulch work, but don’t use woven ground cloth: Blueberry roots don’t grow well under it. Sawdust alone will crust, and water will run off it and onto grass. Blend sawdust with wood chips or other porous material, or break up the crust.
No herbicides are OMRI-approved for blueberries yet. Vinegar may be in the future, but plants would have to be shielded from it. Handley believes that good preplant control, mulches and vigilant pulling by hand will solve weed problems. Otherwise fruit size and yield decrease.
Winter injury occurs after cold, and especially fluctuating, temperatures. After 600 to 800 hours of chilling, blueberries break dormancy, and sap flows if plants are exposed to warm February temperatures, creating potential for winter injury—visible as brown, desiccated shoots. To avoid this, plant hardy varieties and windbreaks. Buds below the snow line are pretty well protected.
Netting is the best bird repellent but is very expensive, requiring a structure around all bushes rather than nets over individual bushes. Individual nets make tending bushes and harvesting too difficult, and nets won’t last long.
Put netting up when berries are just turning blue; remove and store it when picking is over, because UV light degrades the plastic.
Deterrents such as scare eyes and owls work for a few days, then birds become accustomed to them. Set them up as fruits ripen, move them two to three times daily, and take them down after harvest so that birds don’t become accustomed to them. Alarms, such as the sound of bird alarm calls, cost $200 to $1000, depending on the area to be covered, and may work for a couple of weeks—or not. Handley has had the best luck with 3/8-inch-thick Mylar tape that is shiny silver on one side and red on the other. (Wider tape tends to get ripped by wind.) He puts posts at row ends and runs tape a few inches over the bushes, putting a few twists in it. Wind blowing the tape makes a noise like a helicopter and frightens birds. Eventually they become accustomed to the tape, but it works longer than other deterrents. Grower Pat McFarland said he’s had good luck with a motion detector from Johnny’s that squirts water.
Predatory birds—owls, hawks and eagles—will frighten other birds from the area. Robins don’t eat much, but flocking birds--blackbirds, starlings and grackles—are problems. Handley saw one flock land on netting and weigh it down so that the birds could peck through the netting to get the fruits.
Polyester row covers can exclude birds, but the covers heat the air, possibly to over 100 degrees, harming fruit. If used, the material must go to the ground and be anchored.
Old nylon fish netting, sometimes available along the coast, works well.
This fungus can be a big problem in wet springs. It overwinters in mummified fruit in the field, and mushroom-like structures form in the spring from the mummified fruit that shoot spores into the air. These land on the shoot and cause “shoot blight,” which looks like frost injury. Then the fungus forms oozing masses on dead and dying leaves. Rain hitting the gooey masses drips onto flower buds. Infected buds create infected fruits, which start to turn blue but then turn a tan-rose color and shrivel, die and fall off, depleting most of the crop. Most varieties grown in Maine are susceptible to mummyberry.
Handley suggests removing and destroying mummified fruits or fruits showing any symptoms, such as a pinkish color, a few times before crops ripen. Later, bring two buckets to the field: one for good berries and one for infected. In early spring or late fall, rake up as many mummies as possible from the ground; or lightly cultivate them into the soil; or add 4 inches of mulch over last year’s mulch. Mushrooms won’t grow through the mulch.
Fungicides applied from bud break to flower bud give reasonable control, but no OMRI-approved fungicides work well. A late, dormant spray of lime-sulfur in the spring may reduce mummyberry and some shoot blights, but won’t give great control.
In spring, thickened, rubbery growth with odd-looking leaves may occur on branches and in the crown of the plant. The bark is light tan, cracked and shriveled, and these shoots never fruit. The problem is caused by a rust fungus that has balsam fir as its alternate host—so it’s fairly common here.
Handley has seen old, established bushes that were heavily infested with the systemic disease (it moves through the plant) but were still producing a reasonable crop, although plants slowly become less productive. While most literature says to remove plants as soon as witch’s brooms appear, Handley says that’s not economically feasible for most of us. He takes out the entire cane where the broom occurs and destroys it. If brooms are coming from the base of the plant and no new, uninfected cane growth is coming, replace the bush.
Growing Christmas trees and blueberries together probably won’t work, and the recommended separation between blueberries and balsam fir of at least 1,000 feet is difficult to get in Maine. On balsam fir, the disease simply causes small spores on the underside of leaves and is not problematic. Handley has seen varietal differences, but doesn’t have enough information to make a recommendation yet.
The fruit fly responsible for the maggot is a little smaller than but similar to a house fly. It has three white bands on its abdomen, and its wings are translucent but have an F pattern. Flies lay eggs as berries start to turn blue. The oviposition hole looks like the fruit was punctured with a needle. Eggs hatch and larvae (maggots) develop in the fruit, causing the fruit to cave in on itself. Customers are upset when they make jam and maggots float to the top, but the maggots can be skimmed off.
Pyganic, an OMRI-approved insecticide labeled for blueberry maggot, is effective for only about 24 hours, so it has to be reapplied. Yellow sticky boards or red sticky ball traps can be hung around plantings. As soon as one adult is trapped and identified, apply Pyganic again, and clean the traps. With only a few bushes, one sticky trap per bush gives good control. A pheromone can increase trapping, but one trap for every bush or two is still needed.
Japanese beetles, present especially in southern Maine, are moving north rapidly. They tend to feed on foliage, and blueberries can tolerate 25% defoliation without yield reduction. Once fruits start to ripen, though, the beetles start to eat them, especially in a dry year; and customers don’t like to see the beetles. Knock the insects into a bucket of soapy water in the morning, when they’re sluggish.
Pyganic will knock beetles off the bush but will not control them. Surround, a kaolin clay spray, controls beetles by making bushes difficult to recognize, but customers may question whether they’re seeing a “nasty spray residue.”
Traps, such as Bag-a-Bug, usually have two baits—a sex pheromone that attracts males, and a floral scent that attracts females. Unfortunately, traps attract bugs from a distance (Japanese beetles can fly for miles), and many beetles land near but not in the trap, so traps can increase damage. You can put them at least 100 feet from the field to draw the beetles out of rather than into plantings. Treating sod-feeding grubs with Bacillus papillae (milky spore disease, Doom) requires treating the whole county to be effective; the material does not survive well in Maine; and the product has lacked quality lately.
Voles can be a problem, especially with mulch, but mowing grass between mulched rows will discourage them.
Establishment costs $4,000 to $6,000 per acre, mostly for plants and labor. Bird netting is also expensive.
Maintenance costs are about $6,000 to $7,000 per year, mostly for harvest and pruning labor.
Net returns above cost should be $2,000 to $6,000 per acre. Some people are doing worse (especially if they’ve had winter injury); some are doing better (especially with a well-to-do clientele and a good labor source). These figures reflect yields of 4,000 to 8,000 pounds per acre and prices of $1 to $2 per pound. A PYO farm should be able to get more than $2 per pound.
|Theresa and Jerry Rivard grow pick-your-own highbush blueberries in Springvale, Maine. English photo.
Jerry Rivard of Rivard’s Farm in Springvale was one of Maine’s first PYO highbush blueberry growers (after retiring from PYO strawberry cultivation). Rivard urged Farmer to Farmer participants who live north of Augusta to grow PYO blueberries. “We have a surplus of blueberry growers in our area,” he said, partly because he taught people how to grow the crop.
Rivard Farm started as a dairy farm in 1926, and Rivard grew up doing farm jobs there. In 1950, he and his wife bought the farm and raised chickens. In 1960, they added strawberries, starting with half an acre, which, in 1961, produced a $5,000 crop. Eventually they grew 9 acres. When their area became saturated with PYO strawberry farms, the Rivards switched, in 1984, to blueberries, starting with 3 acres.
To exclude birds, Rivard originally purchased 50- x 200-foot netting and sewed strips together with a machine used to sew grain bags. Later he found 150- x 350-foot netting. Posts (from Rivard’s forest) and stainless steel wire supported the netting, and a crew of about six could cover an acre in about half an hour. The $5,000 worth of netting that Rivard started with lasted 18 years. He estimates the cost at $20,000 today. Netting is put up around July 4th, when berries are just getting blue. Sides of the netting are held down with boards. One person takes the netting down after harvest; it’s wound around a spool attached to his tractor. Rivard hasn’t used netting for a couple of years, because eagles and hawks have kept flocking birds away; he knows others who don’t use netting because they don’t have flocking birds.
A fence keeps deer from eating buds in the winter. Sprinkler irrigation keeps soil moist.
Blueberries are planted on a 10- x 6-foot spacing. ‘Bluetta,’ planted in two rows, is not one of Rivard’s favorite varieties. It’s a small, early, very heavily producing bush with berries that ripen almost all at once; flavor decreases three to five days later. “I can’t get them picked, because other, bigger varieties are coming at the same time,” said Rivard. He said the variety probably would adapt to machine harvesting. [Ed: It also looks like a good landscape plant.]
‘Blueray,’ one of Rivard’s favorites, ripens slowly and has good flavor and large berries. “Most people don’t know how to pick. They’ll pick many before the berries are all blue,” said Rivard. “But they have to stay on the bush four to five days to get size and flavor. Tell pickers to pick only the biggest ones.”
‘Northland’ is not one of Rivard’s favorites. It heavily produces very good berries with very good flavor and lasts for nearly the entire picking season, “but people will not pick them. They grow like crazy. They’re hard to prune. They taste good even if they’re not quite ripe.” The shrubs grow like a hedge, are very hardy and produce year after year.
‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Blueray’ are Rivard’s money-makers.
‘Patriot’ is a good, early, large berry. Bushes produce well—in fact, they overproduce, said Rivard, and the fruits lose their flavor quickly if they’re not picked, and then they lose size as well. “People tend to go pick ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Blueray’ instead. We don’t police the field.” ‘Patriot’ plants are huge, too, and have to be cut back regularly.
Rivard noted that people don’t pick blueberries in 90-degree weather, so a heat spell can decrease sales. Sometimes, a third of his crop isn’t picked.
Rivard has a 2-acre irrigation pond that took him two and a half years to dig with a bulldozer – but he doesn’t think he really needs irrigation, because his soil holds moisture well.
For mulch, Rivard used to get a woodchip/sawdust mix from a sawmill. After the mill was sold, he found an inexpensive, old chipper and now makes his own chips. He mulches plants about every two years and adds nitrogen to balance the carbon. Mulching “has really helped control mummyberry,” says Rivard, adding that blueberries “love decaying organic matter.” He spreads an acre of mulch per day from an old wagon. “Never mulch by hand,” he advised.
Rivard recommended ordering plants in the fall, since stock may be gone by spring; and asking for two-year-old plants that are at least 24 inches tall. Handley said that for anything over half an acre, order bare root plants; potted plants would be prohibitively expensive.
Sources of Plants
Fedco Trees, PO Box 520, Waterville, ME 04903, www.fedcoseeds.com
Nourse Farms, 41 River Rd., South Deerfield, MA 01373, 413-665-2658, www.noursefarms.com
Hartmann's Plant Co., PO Box 100, Lacota, MI 49063, 269-253-4281, www.hartmannsplantcompany.com
DeGrandchamps Farms, 76241 14th Ave., South Haven, MI 49090, 888-483-7431, www.degrandchamps.com/
Growing Highbush Blueberries, University of Maine Cooperative Extension
Bulletin #2253, David Handley, www.umext.maine.edu/onlinepubs/htmpubs/2253.htm
Agricultural Alternatives Fact Sheet, Highbush Blueberry Production, Penn. State University, http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/PubDept.asp?varDept=2&offset=15
The Highbush Blueberry Production Guide, $48, Northeast Agricultural Resource and Economic Service NRAES publication 55, Ithaca, N.Y., www.nraes.org
University of Massachusetts Fruit Advisor, www.umass.edu/fruitadvisor/
– Jean English